The Bramble Cay melomys was an extinct Australian rodent. It lived only on one small coral island, Bramble Cay. This made it the most isolated mammal in Australia.
The Bramble Cay melomys hid in bushes and rocky areas of the island.
The Bramble Cay melomys was relatively unknown for most of its existence. It suffered a loss of edible vegetation due to rising sea levels. It was listed as a critically endangered species in 1998.
In 2011 and 2014, researchers tried to capture some specimens to start a captive breeding program. On both occasions they were unable to find any examples. It was reported officially extinct in June 2016.
As rising sea levels were the primary cause of its extinction, it has been described as the first animal to become extinct due to human-caused climate change.